Kelvin Thermal TGP (Thermal Ground Plane) is a thin vapor chamber, i.e. 2-D heat pipe, fabricated using printed circuit board (PCB)-compatible processes. It is low-cost, flexible and thin, e.g. 0.25 mm today and 0.1mm in the future. It is an enabling technology for smartphone and wearable electronics with very thin and/or novel configurations. Kelvin Thermal TGP with effective thermal conductivities 3-7 times that of copper, reduce a mobile system’s skin and junction temperatures with less dimensional constraints in design than existing thermal management solutions using metal and graphite.